Network Time Protocol or NTP is a timing protocol that allows time synchronization across devices on a network to Coordinated Universal Time UTC time. NTP operates on UDP port 123.
One Time to Rule Them All
NTP has no awareness of time zone TZ or day light savings time DST.
Services such as authentication, synchronization, and directory services are all time sensitive and require time synchronization to operate properly.
NTP uses a hierarchical system of time sources called Stratum. The are 16 valid levels of Stratum starting at 0 and ending with 15. Stratum 16 is invalid and means device not synchronized.
- Stratum 0 is the actual atomic, GPS, or radio clock – The Clock
- Stratum 1 is a computer directly attached to a Stratum 0 device. – Directly attached to clock
- Stratum 2 is a networked computer synchronizing with at Stratum 1 computer. – Syncs via network
- Stratum 3 is serviced via network by Stratum 2 and so on. – Syncs via network
A NTP client will regularly poll multiple servers to determine is time.
A Little Light Reading
The current of NTP is Version 4. For technical specifications review the RFC’s below.
NTPv4 is backward compatible to version 3:
RFC’s Relating to NTPv4:
- RFC 5905: Network Time Protocol Version 4: Protocol and Algorithms Specification
- RFC 5906: Network Time Protocol Version 4: Autokey Specification
- RFC 5907: Definitions of Managed Objects for Network Time Protocol Version 4 (NTPv4)
- RFC 5908: Network Time Protocol (NTP) Server Option for DHCPv6
Scott Bollinger / kfalconspb / www.bollingerusa.com